What does the Sunnah say about women and mosques?

Commencé par : Dr.Jaser Audeh

The Sunnah of the Prophet (s) includes hundreds of authentic narrations indicating women’s normal presence in the mosque at all times and on all occasions at the time of the Prophet (s). The following are a few examples:

I will start with a story that Imam Bukhari narrated after Aisha (r). It is the story of an African female slave who was freed by the Arab tribe that enslaved her, and eventually decided to “live” in a tent in the mosque of the Prophet (s). I am quoting the whole narration here because its details are worth reflecting upon. According to Aisha, the young African narrates,: [1]  

“A baby girl from the tribe that had enslaved me came out wearing a red leather scarf decorated with precious stones. The scarf fell from her or she placed it somewhere. A bird passed by that place, saw the scarf on the ground and mistook it for a piece of meat. The bird took the scarf and flew away with it. The baby’s family searched for the scarf and when they could not find it, they accused me of stealing it and started searching me aggressively. They even searched my private parts. By Allah, while I was being searched, the same bird returned and dropped the red scarf on them. So I told them, ‘This is what you accused me of and I was innocent. Here is your scarf.’”

Aisha added: “The family then freed that young lady, and she immediately came to Allah’s Messenger (s) and embraced Islam. She then set up for herself a tent with a low roof in the mosque and lived in it. She used to visit me occasionally and chat with me. Every time she sat down with me, she would start by reciting the following poem:

The Day of the Scarf was one of my Lord’s miracles.

With His Grace, He rescued me from the disbelievers.”

Aisha added, “When I asked her once about the story of that poem, she told me the whole story.”

In the above story, you can see how “normal” it was for the young lady to come and talk with the Prophet (s) in the mosque, and how she even lived in the mosque when she could not find shelter. By the way, Ibn Hazm, the Andalusian scholar, concluded based on this hadith that a woman’s menses does not prevent her from staying in the mosque. More on that issue later.

Here are a few other narrations to reflect upon in the context of women in the mosque of the Prophet (s):

Aisha (r) said: “Sa`d Ibn Muaz was wounded on the Battle of the Al-Khandaq (The Ditch) … Then, the Prophet(s) set up a tent in the mosque for Sa`d to be able to visit frequently.”[2] 

Commenting on this particular narration, Ibn Hajar stated that: “The Messenger of Allah (s) actually let Sa`d stay in Rufaydah’s tent in the mosque. She was known for her skills in treating the wounded. The Prophet said, ‘let Sa`d stay in her tent so that I can visit him from a close distance.’”[3]

Rufaydah was a female companion and a physician who set up a tent in the Prophet’s mosque. This tent is known to be the first emergency clinic in Islam’s history.

Imam Muslim mentions that Al-Sha`bi narrated: “We entered upon Fatimah bint Qays, and she said, ‘It was announced that the people should gather for prayer, and then I was among those heading for the Prophet’s Mosque. I was in the front row of women, which was right behind the last row of men, when I heard the Prophet (s) saying while he was on the pulpit: ‘The cousins of Al-Dary sailed the sea …’“[4]

Bukhari narrated that Asma’ bint Abu Bakr said: “I came to Aisha, may Allah be pleased with her, the wife of the Prophet (s) when the sun had eclipsed, and found out that all people were standing in prayer…when the Prophet (s) finished the prayer, he thanked and praised Almighty Allah.”[5]

Asma bint Abu Bakr narrates the same story as follows: “The sun eclipsed during the lifetime of the Prophet, peace be upon him…then, I came and entered the mosque, and saw the Messenger of Allah (s) standing up in prayer. I joined him in prayer, but he kept standing up so long that I felt I needed to sit down. Yet, I would notice a weak woman standing next to me, and then I would say to myself, “She is even weaker than me” and I would keep standing...Then he (s) bowed down in ruku and kept bowing for a long time, and then he raised his head from ruku and kept standing up for a very long time. A man approached then and, because of the delay, thought that the Prophet (s) had not yet offered the ruku.”[6]

Bukhari and others narrated that Aisha (r) said: “The believing women, covered with their veiling sheets, used to attend the dawn prayer with Allah’s Messenger, and after finishing the prayer they would return to their homes.“[7]

Umm Salamah, the wife of the Prophet (s), narrates that during the lifetime of the Prophet, when women had concluded the ordained prayer, they would rise and leave, and the Prophet (s) would sometimes stay along with the men.[8]

Moreover, it was narrated from Asma: “I heard the Prophet (s) saying, ‘Whoever of you women believes in Allah and in the Last Day should not raise her head until we men raise our heads after prostration, lest they should see the private parts of men.’” Asma added: “This was because their lower garments were short, knowing that most of them at the time could only afford to wear a namirah (a small lower garment).”[9]

Asma also narrated: “The Messenger of Allah (s) stood up amongst us and preached to us, mentioning the questions that a dead person would be asked in the grave, and thereupon the people clamoured in a manner that prevented me from perceiving the concluding words of the Messenger of Allah. When they calmed down, I asked a man sitting in front of me, ‘May Allah bless you, what did the Messenger say concluding his sermon?’ He answered, ‘It was revealed to me that you would be tested in your graves in a manner almost similar to that of Al-Dajjal trial.’“[10]

Abu Hurairah narrated that a black woman who used to clean the mosque, died. When the Messenger (s) asked about her, they informed him that she had died. He then said, “Why did you not inform me when she died? Guide me to her grave.” So, he approached her grave and offered the funeral prayer for her there.[11]

Moreover, it was narrated from Aisha (r) that when Sa`d Ibn Abu Waqqas died, the wives of the Prophet (s) sent a message to bring his bier into the mosque so that they should offer prayer for him.[12]

Atikah bint Zayd, Umar Ibn Al-Khattab’s wife, used to offer the fajr (dawn) and the isha (night) prayers in congregation in the mosque. Some attendees of the mosque asked her, “Why do you come out for the prayer even though you know that Umar dislikes it? It makes him jealous.” She replied, “Then, why does not he forbid me from doing that?” They answered, “What prevents him is the statement of Allah’s Messenger (s) ‘Do not prevent women from going to Allah’s mosques‘.”[13] Ibn Hajar commented: “Indeed, when Umar was stabbed, Atikah was in the mosque praying behind him.”[14]

Finally, Bukhari and Muslim narrated after Aisha (r), the Prophet’s wife:

“Allah's Apostle invited me on a day of Eid to watch the Abyssinians who were playing in the mosque, displaying their skill with spears. He asked: Would you like to watch? I answered: ‘Yes.’ So I stood behind him and he lowered his shoulder so I can put my chin on it. I did and leaned with my face on his cheek and watched. Eventually, he asked me several times if I wanted to leave and I replied every time: ‘Please wait.’ I was not interested in watching, really, but on that day I wanted women especially to know my status with him. Therefore, appreciate a young lady’s keenness to be playful.”[15]

I must add here the following note: in this hadith, which took place shortly after Aisha’s marriage to the Prophet (s), she was not a “young girl” as some commentators claimed. My estimate of Aisha’s age when she married the Prophet(s) in the first year of the Hijri Calendar, is 19, not nine as some scholars claimed. This is based on a long investigation of different historical narrations related to her age, the details of which are beyond the scope of this book. However, I decided to give a brief outline of my argument below. This discussion is relevant to this book about women in the mosque, especially from a methodological point of view.

A non-authentic narration, which was unfortunately included in the authentic collections (Bukhari No. 3894 and Muslim No. 1422), indicated that the Prophet (s) consummated his marriage to Aisha when she was “nine years old”. There is no difference of opinion over the fact that this marriage took place in Medina in the first year after Hijra. However, there are other authentic narrations, also in the same Bukhari and Muslim authentic collections, which logically contradict the “nine years old” narration.

For example, Bukhari’s narration (No. 2724) that Aisha participated with the Muslim army in the Battle of Uhud (in Year 2 Hijri) means that she was supposedly 10 years old during that battle. This is logically impossible, given her role in battle that was narrated in the hadith. This narration also contradicts with numerous other narrations in which the Prophet never allowed children under 15 to witness battles.

Bukhari himself also narrates (No. 2176) that Aisha witnessed her father’s attempt to migrate to Abyssinia, which was during the Year 4 of the Message (Year 9 Before Hijra) according to all accounts. This witnessing could not have happened before Aisha herself was born, as the “nine years old” hadith implies!

Bukhari himself also narrates (No. 4595) that Aisha witnessed the revelation of Surat Al-Qamar (Chapter 54) while she was a “jariyah” (an Arabic term for a girl between 6 and 13) “playing in Mecca”. Chapter 54 was revealed somewhere between the Years 2 and 4 of the Message (i.e., between Years 11 and 9 Before Hijra), according to all other accounts. This means that in the first year after Hijra, her age must have been somewhere between 15 and 24, according to the simple mathematical logic of these Bukhari narrations themselves.

Other narrations, by Ibn Ishaq this time, show that Aisha was the “19th person to embrace Islam" in the first year of the message (i.e. 13 Before Hijra), and that she was a “young girl” at that time (Ibn Hisham, 271). Ibn Ishaaq was rendered “trustworthy” by many, including Imams Sufian Al-Thawri, Al-Zuhri, Shu’ba, Al-Shafie, Ali Ibn Al-Madini, and other prominent scholars. It is true that Imam Malik and Hisham Ibn Urwa accused Ibn Ishaq of lying, but many other scholars disagreed, especially as Malik never met Ibn Ishaq himself.

In fact, it is Hisham Ibn Urwa, whom I think is the source of the error in the “nine years old” narrations. He was accused of lying (tadlees) by a number of scholars, including Malik Ibn Anas and Ibn Hajar, and of having developed amnesia later in his life by other scholars, including Yahya Ibn Saeed and Ibn Khirash. His conduct with the Umayyad kings of his time also shows lack of integrity and honesty.[16]

To me, Hisham Ibn Urwa’s serious problem is his narration about the Prophet (s) being a victim of some magic spell (hadith sihr al-rasul). Hisham is the source of the claim that the Prophet (s) fell under some magic spell that was made by an unknown Jewish young man from Medina by the name Labid Ibn A’sam (Bukhari No. 4530). Hisham claimed that to the Prophet (s) spent some time, “imagining that he did things that he never did,” etc. This narration by Hisham contradicts many Quranic principles, including Allah’s promise to “protect the Prophet from people” (5:67), and the Quran’s repeated rejection of claims from the pagans of Mecca that the Prophet (s) was under a magical spell (refer to: 17:47, 17:101, and 25:8). For me, this narration alone makes Hisham non-trustworthy, despite the greatness of his father Urwah Ibn Al-Zubair, who was one of the seven most prominent jurists of Medina, and his grandfather Al-Zubair Ibn Al-Awwam, a prominent companion of the Prophet (s).

We also have the other authentic narrations that Aisha was briefly "engaged" to Jubair Ibn Mut'am Ibn ‘Adiyy (Ahmad’s Collection, No. 25810), before she married the Prophet (s) – an engagement that could not have happened logically before the age of 6 or 7, as Hisham’s narration implies! And there is another historical fact that Aisha was ten years younger than her sister Asma Bint Abu Bakr, and Asma was 17 (or otherwise 27 according to other narrations) in the first year of the message when she embraced Islam. This puts Aisha's age around seven in the first year of the Message (13 Before Hijra). Therefore Aisha was at least 19 when she married the Prophet, peace be upon him.

Finally, when we have such contradictions in narrations transferred by “trustworthy” narrators, we must apply the method of critiquing the content (naqd al-matn). This means that the Prophet’s marrying Aisha at the age of 19 is more likely to have happened than marrying a girl literally in her childhood (at the age of six, seven or nine, narrations differ). This critique has a specific significance because the narrations related to this marriage have been cited in fatwa (legal ruling) about marriage age in Islam. The fatwa that allowed the marriage of children at the age of nine has caused the demise of numerous poor girls in our time and before. I must add that my view is not based on a bias to any particular western or eastern “culture,” legal or social, but is purely based on the understanding (dirayah) of the narrations and the rules of fiqh (jurisprudence) of marriage in Islam and its higher objectives (maqasid). If marriage is about achieving the objectives of “mutual love and mercy,” as the Quran asserts (30:21), how can marrying a six or nine year old girl achieve mutual love and mercy?

The same higher objectives of the Sharia and holistic understanding of the Sunnah narrations are essential for us to be able to answer our questions.

Al-Tabarani narrates:

“Bilal Ibn Abdullah Ibn Omar Ibn Al-Khattab narrated to me that one day his father Abdullah Ibn Omar said: ‘Indeed, I heard the Messenger of Allah (s) say, “Do not deprive the female slaves of Allah of their share in the mosques.”’ Bilal said, “As for me, I shall forbid my household females, but whosoever wishes to let his women go out, let him do so.” Thus, my father Abdullah turned to Bilal and said, “May Allah curse you! May Allah curse you! May Allah curse you! You hear me say that the Messenger of Allah ordered that women are not to be deprived, and you say otherwise.” Abdullah wept and angrily departed.” 

Another narration stated that Abdullah, “stretched his hand and slapped Bilal.”[17]

A similar report was narrated by Al-Tirmidhi:

“We were at Ibn Omar’s, when he said, the Messenger of Allah said, ‘Permit women to go to mosques at night.‘ His son said, ‘By Allah, we would not permit them to do so as they would do mischief.’ Ibn Omar replied, ‘I say that the Messenger said such and such, and you say, ‘we would not allow them?’”.[18]

Here, the reaction of Abdullah Ibn Omar (r), who narrated the quoted hadith, indicates clearly the prohibition of preventing women from visiting the mosque, a prevention that is contrary to the Prophet’s command. But Bilal, his son, wanted to avoid what he called “mischief” (daghal, fitnah), and applied the method that was later known as “blocking the means” or “cutting the roots” (sadd al-dhara’i’). This is consequentialist logic in prohibiting something lawful in order to prevent something unlawful from happening.

I made an extensive survey on various schools of Islamic jurisprudence, and concluded that scholars who prevented or discouraged women from going to the mosques generally ignored the clarity of Abdullah Ibn Omar’s narration and reaction, and relied instead on one or both of the following two narrations in support of their view:

  1. Aisha (r) said, “If the Messenger of Allah (s) had seen the unlawful innovations that women have introduced, he would have definitely prevented them from going to the mosque, as the women of the Children of Israel were prevented from their temples.[19]
  2. Umm Humaid, a companion, narrated that the Prophet (s) told her: “Your prayer in your house is better for you than your prayer in the congregation.”[20] So, her nephew narrates, Umm Humaid ordered that a prayer place be prepared for her in the furthest and darkest part of her house, and she used to pray there until she died.”[21]

    As for Aisha’s (r) opinion, it is obvious that her statement was made in a particular context, the context of some women who were committing some unlawful acts in the mosque. She did not mean to change the default recommendation or “abrogate” it, in the sense that was understood by some jurists. No jurist in Medina during her time judged that her statement indicated a change in the default ruling of permissibility. Soon after her time, when Imam Malik of Medina was asked his opinion about preventing women from visiting the mosque, he said, “Women should never be prevented from going out to the mosques.”[22] 

    Ibn Hajar commented:

    “Some scholars held on to Aisha’s prevention of women’s frequenting the mosque as absolute, though it is debatable. For it does not entail a change in the ruling since she made it contingent on a non-existent condition, “if he had seen … he would have prevented,” but he (s) neither saw nor prevented. Besides, these innovations were introduced only by a few, not all, women. Hence, if prevention is necessary, it would apply only to them.”[23]

    Ibn Hazm has a similar argument:

    “Certainly, some women only, and not all, introduced these unlawful innovations. It is impossible to prevent goodness for those who did not do such things because of those who committed them.”[24] 



    Ibn Qudamah also said:

    “The Prophet’s Sunnah is more worthy to be followed, and Aisha’s, may Allah be pleased with her, statement is limited only to those who introduce unlawful innovations.”[25]

    It is clear from these examples, and many others, that taking what Aisha (r) said as a general rule is an extreme interpretation that no sound scholar would approve.

    On the other hand, in today’s context, restrictions and obstacles hindering women from visiting the mosque should be removed, not the other way around. Women should in fact be encouraged to go to the mosque, not only as her right, but also as this serves many good purposes, including remembering Allah, acquiring knowledge, meeting other Muslim women who frequent the mosque, and participating in public activities in a way that benefits her, her religion, her family, her community.

    In terms of Islamic jurisprudence, means have to be “opened” instead of being “blocked”. Theorists of fiqh have proposed “opening the means” (fat-hal-dhara’i) as an alternative methodology to “blocking” them when circumstances differ.[26] The Maliki scholar Al-Qarafi, for example, explained that the means which lead to prohibited ends should be blocked and discouraged, whereas means that lead to lawful ends should be opened and encouraged.[27] Ibn Farhun, for another example, applied ‘opening the means’ to a number of rulings.[28]

    Finally, Sheikh Abdul-Halim Abu Shuqqah commented on Aisha’s opinion by a call to opening the means, rather than blocking them, for women in the mosque. He writes:

    “Had Aisha, may Allah be pleased with her, seen the unlawful innovations that the women of our time have introduced in places of entertainment and sports, had she witnessed the vicious media invasion that manipulates their minds and hearts, and had she witnessed that fact today that the only place where women are not allowed is the mosque – would she have made the same judgment? The answer is no. In fact, Aisha would have said, ‘Had the Messenger, peace be upon him, seen what is happening, he would have made it obligatory for women to frequent the mosque.’ She would have encouraged women to frequent mosques with[i1]  the same zeal she had to deter them from the mosque before. She would have been keen for women to avoid temptations and learn good habits by asking them to visit the mosques.”[29] 

    The hadith quoted above, which was narrated by Ibn Hibban and Ahmad about Umm Humaid (“your prayer at home is better than your prayer in congregation”) is authentic, but incomplete. The context or the full story of the hadith was not explained in the famous narrations. 

    However, the other narrators of the same story, namely, Al-Tabarani, Al-Baihaqi, Ibn Abu Shaibah, and Ibn Abu Asim, gave more detail. Their (authentic) additions explained that the context of the hadith was an argument between Umm Humaid and Abu Humaid Al-Saedi, her husband. The argument was due to Um Humaid’s regular attendance of congregational prayer in the Prophet’s (s) Mosque. In these narrations, Umm Humaid visited the Prophet (s) with a group of women and said, “O Messenger of Allah, we like to pray with you but our husbands prevent us from coming to the mosque.”[30]

    Abu Humaid Al-Saedi was from the family of Bani Saedah, a branch of Al-Khazraj tribe in Medina. They used to live far from the Prophet’s mosque, beyond the borders of Medina at the time, and had their own farms, their own Bani Saedah Council (saqeefat bani saedah) and their own mosque, which the Prophet (s) visited once and prayed in. (Ibn Majah No. 1217)

    Therefore, the Messenger of Allah (s) only intended to resolve a marital disagreement between Umm Humaid and Abu Humaid, which was over the long distance she had to walk five times a day to pray behind him in his mosque. The Prophet basically advised Umm Humaid to accommodate her husband’s request, for the sake of her children and family, and pray in the tribe’s mosque or at home. 

    There is no evidence that the Prophet (s) meant to change the default rule for women to visit mosques, or even the special reward for praying in his mosque (s), which he mentioned in several other narrations for visitors to his mosque – men and women. This is the only possible interpretation that resolves the conflict between the different hadiths. The basic juridical rule states that the application of all scripts is better than neglecting any of them.

    I do have an issue, however, with the narrations stating that Umm Humaid chose the “darkest” and “furthest” spot in her house to pray in. I believe that, if these narrations were true, it was Umm Humaid’s preference to choose that spot rather than the Prophet’s instruction (s). There are hundreds of other narrations that include women praying in congregation, and none of them included a recommendation to choose a “dark” or a “far” spot. 

    Other than the hadith of Umm Humaid discussed above, there is no other authentic narration that could have implied discouraging or preventing women from visiting the mosque, or a general rule that their praying at home is better than praying in the Prophet’s Mosque itself. In fact, the Prophet (s) famously said: “One prayer in this mosque of mine is better than one thousand prayers elsewhere, except for the Sacred Mosque in Mecca.”[31] The Prophet (s) in this recommendation made no differentiation between men and women. 

    However, some scholars, advocating the prevention of women from frequenting the mosque, have relied on a number of non-authentic narrations as supporting evidence! Yet, such weak narrations do not constitute solid proof or countermand the numerous authentic hadiths supporting the contrary opinion.

    Let us discuss one example of these non-authentic narrations, which unfortunately appear in numerous contemporary fatwa related to women and visiting the mosque.[32] It is the narration that claims that the Prophet (s) asked his daughter Fatimah what is best for a woman. The narration claims that Fatimah answered, “that she should see no man and that no man should see her.” The Prophet, according to the narration, then hugged her and said, “good offspring descending from one another.”[33] In addition to its weak chain of narration (isnad), the meaning of this hadith contradicts with many explicit statements of the Quran about women’s interaction with men in various circumstances and events, including the verse in which Allah included the children of the Prophet (s), including Fatimah, in one of those events:

    Then whoever argues with you Muhammad about it after this knowledge has come to you – say, ‘Come, let us call our children and your children, our wives and your wives, ourselves and yourselves, then supplicate earnestly together and invoke the curse of Allah upon the liars among us.’” (3:61)

    This verse explicitly mentions the children of the Prophet (s). Ibn Kathir commented on the verse, and mentioned the story of the delegation to Najran, stating:

    “They refused to acknowledge the truth. Then, when dawn broke, the Prophet (s) after informing them of the newly revealed verses, came out with Al-Hassan and Al-Hussain wrapped in a velvet cloth of his, and Fatimah came out walking behind him.”[34]

    There are also numerous other hadiths that involve Fatimah (r) “seen” in public in various contexts and dealing with men in a normal way. 

    Finally, it is to be noted that a woman’s visit to the mosque, and a man’s visit as well, is not supposed to compromise other duties that are of higher priority. This consideration is relative, of course, subject to individuals and families and their specific circumstances. That is why the Prophet, as discussed earlier, recommended that Umm Humaid stay closer to her family, and as discussed later, he did not require from women to pray the Friday prayer in the mosque as he required from men. There is a special consideration given to women, given their various family and care-giving circumstances, especially mothers with small children. The general rule, however, is that it is impermissible to prevent women from going out to the mosque, if they wish to, and that her performing of a regular prayer in the mosque is better and more rewarding than her praying at home or anywhere else.

 


[1] Bukhari, 95-6/1

[2] Bukhari, chapter on Expeditions, 416/8, and Muslim, chapter on Jihad, 160/5.

[3] Fat-h Al-Bary, 415/8.

[4] Muslim, the chapter on ordeals, 205/8.

[5] Bukhari, chapter on ablution, 300/1, and Muslim, chapter on prayer upon eclipse, 32/3.

[6] Muslim, chapter on Prayer upon Eclipse, 32/3.

[7] Bukhari, chapter on Prayer, 195/2 and Muslim, chapter on Masjids, 118/2.

[8] Bukhari, 173/1.

[9] Ahmad’s Musnad, 511/44.

[10] Bukhari, chapter on Funerals, 479/3, till the word “clamoured”, and then Al-Nasa’i narrated the rest in his Musnad, 200/7, through the chain reported by Bukhari.

[11] Bukhari, chapter on Expeditions, 416/8, and Muslim, chapter on Jihad, 160/5.

[12] Muslim, chapter on Funerals, 63/3.

[13] Bukhari, chapter on Prayer, 6/2; Ibn Hibban, 327/1, Al-Muwatta’, 197/1, Al-Bayhaqi, 199/3, Ibn Khuzaymah, 90/3, Ibn Abu Shaybah, 156/2, Ibn Abu Shaybah, 156/2, and Ahmad on the authority of Abu Hurairah (405/15).

[14] Fat-h Al-Bary, 34/3.

[15] Bukhari 445 and Muslim 892.

[16] Refer, for example, to Al-Zahabi for a detailed biography. Muhammad Al-Zahabi, Siyar A’laam al-Nubalaa, Al-Risalah, Beirut, 2001, 6/34–47.

[17] Al-Tabarani’s Al-Mu`jam Al-Kabir, 362/12 and 399/12.

[18] At-Tirmidhi, 709/1, Bukhari, 305/1, Chapter: “Allowing women to frequent the mosques at night”.

[19] Bukhari, chapter on Prayer, 173/1; Muslim, chapter on Prayer, 328/1, and others.

[20] Al-Bayhaqi 4944.

[21] Ahmad 26550.

[22] Al-Mudawwanah Al-Kubra, 106/1.

[23] Fat-h Al-Bary, 495/2.

[24] Al-Muhalla, 163/3.

[25] Al-Mughny, 375/2.

[26] al-Qarafi, Al-Dhakheerah  1/153. al-Qarafi, Al-Furuq (Ma˒a Hawamishih)  2/60, Burhaneddin Ibn Farhoun, Tabsirat Al-Hukkam Fi Usul Al-˓Aqdiyah Wa Manahij Al-˓Ahkam, ed. Jamal Mar˒ashli (Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-˒ilmiyah, 1995) 2/270.

[27] al-Qarafi, Al-Dhakheerah  1/153. al-Qarafi, Al-Furuq (Ma˒a Hawamishih)  2/60.

[28] Ibn Farhoun, Tabsirat Al-Hukkam  2/270-.

[29] Tahrir Al-Mar’ah Fi `Asr Ar-Risalah (Liberating Woman in the Age of the Mission), 36/1.

[30] Al-Baihaqi, 190/3; At-Tabarani in Al-Mu`jam Al-Kabir, 148/25 and Al-Ahad wal-Mathani, 150/6.